Review of Insulator Failure Modes

Composite insulators were developed 45 years ago, largely due to these defects, and were introduced on an industrial scale in the 1980s. When suppliers adjust their products through successive generations of designs based on their initial service experience, there is a learning curve, but the technology is now mature. In fact, in most countries, it is considered equivalent and interchangeable with porcelain and glass. This is an impressive achievement, especially if one thinks that 25 years ago, power engineers knew little about the technology and did not trust composite insulators.